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Sudan: civilians flee and int’l community attempts mediation as clashes continue

Fighting could be heard in south Khartoum on Sunday as envoys from Sudan’s warring parties were in Saudi Arabia for talks that international mediators hope will bring an end to a three-week-old conflict that has killed hundreds and triggered an exodus.

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Manahil Salah, a 28-year-old laboratory doctor on an evacuation flight from Port Sudan to the United Arab Emirates, said her family hid for three days in their home close to army headquarters in the capital before eventually traveling to the Red Sea coast.

“Yes I am happy to survive,” she said. “But I feel deep sadness because I left my mother and father behind in Sudan, and sad because all this pain is happening in my homeland.”

Thousands of people are pushing to leave from Port Sudan on boats to Saudi Arabia, paying for expensive commercial flights through the country’s only functioning airport, or using evacuation flights.

“We were lucky to travel to Abu Dhabi, but what’s happening in Khartoum, where I spent my whole life, is painful,” said 75-year-old Abdulkader, who also caught an evacuation flight to the UAE. “Leaving your life and your memories is something indescribable.”

Battles since mid-April have killed hundreds of people and wounded thousands of others, disrupted aid supplies, and sent 100,000 refugees fleeing abroad.

Attempts at mediation and aid

An initiative by the U.S. and Saudi Arabia is the first serious attempt to end fighting between the army and the paramilitary Rapid Support Forces (RSF) that has turned parts of the Sudanese capital into war zones, derailed an internationally backed plan to usher in civilian rule following years of unrest and uprisings, and created a humanitarian crisis.

Saudi Arabia will allocate USD 100 million in humanitarian aid to Sudan, Saudi state-run Al Ekhbariya television said on Sunday.

Meanwhile, the Arab League, which is now holding a meeting in Cairo, decided to set up
a committee to communicate with Sudan’s warring parties and the international community on reaching a ceasefire agreement.

The committee, which was announced during an urgent ministerial meeting, is set to include Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and the Arab League’s Secretary General, Ahmed Aboul Gheit.

“I repeat my appeal to uphold this opportunity and to put forward the interests of the country above anything else, and to also engage in the talks in a way that brings stability to Sudan and preserves the national institutions from collapse, as well as preserving its sovereignty,” Gheit said, while also praising the U.S.-Saudi ceasefire initiative, saying that it “really deserves our support”.

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The other point on the agenda of the Arab League’s meeting was lifting the suspension on Syria’s membership.

Situation in Sudan

While mediators are seeking a path to peace, both sides have made it clear they would only discuss a humanitarian truce, not negotiate an end to the war.

Confirming his group’s attendance, RSF leader Mohamed Hamdan Dagalo, commonly known as Hemedti, said he hoped the talks would achieve their intended aim of securing safe passage for civilians.

Hemedti has vowed to either capture or kill army leader Abdel Fattah al-Burhan, and there was also evidence on the ground that both sides remain unwilling to make compromises to end the bloodshed.

The conflict started on April 15 following the collapse of an internationally backed plan for a transition to democracy.

Burhan, a career army officer, heads a ruling council installed after the 2019 ouster of long-time autocrat Omar al-Bashir and a 2021 military coup, while Hemedti, a former militia leader who made his name in the Darfur conflict, is his deputy.

Prior to the fighting, Hemedti had been taking steps like moving closer to a civilian coalition that indicated he had political plans. Burhan has blamed the war on his “ambitions”.

The extensive use of explosive ordnance throughout the fighting has increased the danger to civilians, especially children who can mistake the munitions for toys and play with them, said the United Nations Mine Action Service.

Western powers have backed the transition to a civilian government in a country that sits at a strategic crossroads between Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Ethiopia, and the volatile Sahel region.

White House national security adviser Jake Sullivan was traveling to Saudi Arabia at the weekend for talks with Saudi leaders.

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